Introduction to genetic engineering - Molecular genetics - High school biology - Khan Academy
Genetics includes the study of heredity, or how traits are passed from parents to offspring. The topics of genetics vary and are constantly changing as we learn more about the genome and how we are influenced by our genes. Heredity Simulation — use popsicle sticks to show how alleles are inherited Penny Genetics — flip a coin to compare actual outcomes versus predicted outcomes from a punnett square Heredity Wordsearch — fill in the blank, find words.
X Linked Genetics in Calico Cats — more practice with sex-linked traits Multiple Allele Traits — practice with blood type crosses and other ABO type alleles Multiple Allele Traits in Chickens — shows how combs are inherited rrpp x RRpp Inheritance and Eye Color — uses a simulation to show how multiple alleles can influence a single trait eye color.
As the case progresses, students learn about polygenic inheritance patterns.
Introduction to genetic engineering
Oompa Loompa Genetics pdf — basic crosses and problem sets, using oompa loompas Norn Genetics — online simulation showing basic single allele traits, multiple allele traits and codominance.
Paper Pets — another simulation using paper models with traits for eyes, nose, mouth, and hair. Hardy-Weinberg Problem Set — statistical analysis, using HW equation and some dragons Hardy Weinberg Simulation — track an allele in population by simulating how parents pass alleles to offspring. Corn Genetics and Chi Square — statistical analysis, using preserved corn and counting kernels Corn Genetics — grow corn, albino ratio, lab report analyzes F1, F2 crosses.
Fruit Fly Genetics — virtual lab where you cross different flies, gather data and statistically analyze the results Fruit Fly Drosophila Virtual Lab — more extensive virtual lab through a program created by Virtual Courseware, requires set up by teacher. Dragon Genetics Word Problems ppt — displays genetics problems on projector for students to solve.Index of passwd txt
Meiosis Label — look at cells in various stages of meiosis, identify and order Meiosis Internet Lesson — look at animations of meiosis and answer questions Meiosis Powerpoint — slideshow covers meiosis, homologous chromosomes, crossing over…. Modeling Chromosomal Inheritance — use pipe cleaners to show how genes are inherited; independent assortment, segregation, sex-linkage.
DNA Powerpoint Presentation — covers the basics for a freshman level class. Genetic Engineering Concept Map — Complete this graphic organizer on various techniques used in genetics, such as selective breeding and manipulating DNA. Lesson Plans.Time Required: 30 minutes Consider adding 30 minutes for a thorough ethics discussion. Most curricular materials in TeachEngineering are hierarchically organized; i.
Some activities or lessons, however, were developed to stand alone, and hence, they might not conform to this strict hierarchy. Related Curriculum shows how the document you are currently viewing fits into this hierarchy of curricular materials.
Genetic engineers have developed genetic recombination techniques to manipulate gene sequences in plants, animals and other organisms to express specific traits. Applications for genetic engineering are increasing as engineers and scientists work together to identify the locations and functions of specific genes in the DNA sequence of various organisms. Once each gene is classified, engineers develop ways to alter them to create organisms that provide benefits such as cows that produce larger volumes of meat, fuel- and plastics-generating bacteria, and pest-resistant crops.
Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K science, technology, engineering or math STEM educational standards. In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.
Grades 9 - Do you agree with this alignment? Thanks for your feedback! Alignment agreement: Thanks for your feedback! View aligned curriculum. Students learn about mutations to both DNA and chromosomes, and uncontrolled changes to the genetic code. They are introduced to small-scale mutations substitutions, deletions and insertions and large-scale mutations deletion duplications, inversions, insertions, translocations and nondisjunction As a class, students work through an example showing how DNA provides the "recipe" for making human body proteins.
They see how the pattern of nucleotide bases adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine forms the double helix ladder shape of DNA, and serves as the code for the steps required to make gene Students reinforce their knowledge that DNA is the genetic material for all living things by modeling it using toothpicks and gumdrops that represent the four biochemicals adenine, thiamine, guanine, and cytosine that pair with each other in a specific pattern, making a double helix.
Student teams After watching video clips from the Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire movie, students explore the use of Punnett squares to predict genetic trait inheritance.
The objective of this lesson is to articulate concepts related to genetics through direct immersive interaction based on the theme, The Sci Make copies of the Genetic Engineering Flow Chartone per student. Hand out the blank flow charts for students to fill in during the presentation and lecture. Open with two images of the same organism: one that has been genetically engineered and one that has not. Examples: two ears of corn in which the non-modified one is diseased; two cows in which the modified one is larger; or, since students really respond to bioluminescent organisms, show two mice in which one has been modified to glow green.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.
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View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Description: The use of various methods to manipulate the DNA genetic material of cells to Tags: engineering genetic introduction jiffy. Latest Highest Rated. By changing this information, genetic engineering changes the type or amount of proteins an organism is capable of producing, thus enabling it to make new substances or perform new functions.
The technology used to genetically manipulate living cells to produce new chemicals or perform new functions. The modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material DNA. The science of changing the DNA of a plant or animal to produce desirable characteristics. Examples of desirable characteristics include fast growth and unusually large size. Web Definitions 5 Other Terms Genetic engineering genetic modification GM gene splicing older term "Transgenic organism" is now the preferred term for genetically modified organisms with extra-genome foreign genetic information, as opposed to "genetically engineered" or "genetically modified" organisms which may refer to changes made within the genome such as amplification or deletion of genes.
Background Da niel Nathans and Hamilton Smith received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their isolation of restriction endonucleases, which are able to cut DNA at specific sites.
Genetic Engineering: History, Molecular Tools, and Everything Else
Together with ligase, which can join fragments of DNA together, restriction enzymes formed the initial basis of recombinant DNA technology. Currently in the US, 35 percent of all corn is genetically engineered as well as 55 of all soy and cotton. Although cotton is most commonly thought of as a material, cottonseed oil is used in foods. Soy is more widely consumed than many would think, as 60 of processed foods contain soy.
At this time, we could not do longitudinal studies on people who are consuming foods containing genetically engineered ingredients because foods are not labeled. Thus, it would be impossible to develop a control group. One significant problem with genetically engineered foods is the risk to people with specific food allergies. For example, Brazil nut genes were inserted into soybeans to increase their protein content.
The product was ready to go to market when tests showed that the soybeans caused allergic reactions in people with allergies to Brazil nuts. In addition, new allergens may be introduced into the food system through genetic engineering.
Currently, 85 of genetically engineered crops are engineered for herbicide or pest resistance. The other 15 are engineered to be viral resistant or have more "desirable traits" such as increased oil content or shelf life. These desired traits are not necessarily preferred by or beneficial to the consumer, but they fit within the framework of our industrialized, concentrated agriculture system, which entails large-scale production and long distance transport.
Mutations arising from DNA replication are caused by the fact that sometimes the DNA polymerase inserts the wrong nucleotide i. Mismatches are repaired by the DNA mismatch repair system. This system therefore repair replication errors. The following table shows the number of errors made by biological systems compared with human actions.
The three steps common to most types of repair are excision step 1resynthesis step 2and ligation step 3.
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In step 1, the damage is cut out by one of a series of nucleases, each specialized for a type of DNA damage in steps 2 and 3, the original DNA sequence is restored by a repair DNA polymerase, which fills in the gap created by the excision events. DNA ligase seals the nick left in the sugar-phosphate backbone of the repaired strand.Genetic Engineering Seminar and PPT with pdf report : Every one of us knows that many of our distinguishing qualities are genetic and we get these qualities from our parents.
The genetic engineering is all about the applied science or technology with which we can change the genetic information of plants, animals and human beings to generate the qualities which we want. Genetic engineering is working on two outlooks for the future, they are:. Transgenic engineering is nothing but placing the information from one plant or animal into other.
Cloning is making of genetic copies of an existing animal or plant. With this, the human beings have a lot more to know about them at the molecular level. The genetic modification is in practice from 12, BC when the human beings began to accustom organisms to household life. Genetic engineering is the direct transfer of DNA from one organism to the other and this was initially started by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in the year of The mouse was the foremost animal which was genetically modified by Rudolf Jaenisch, tobacco was the foremost plant which was modified by availing genetic engineering.
GENETIC ENGINEERING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
In and genetically changing bacteria namely somatostatin and insulin were generated. Coming to the foods, a tomato was the foremost food that was produced in availing genetic engineering. The dog was believed to be the foremost animal that was accustomed to household life and raised from the wolf family.
Charles Darwin explained three types of selective breeding and they are as follows:. Later many developments were made by the scientists and they enhanced many varieties.
The techniques used in the genetic engineering are as follows:. Electrochemical insertion: In the electrochemical insertion method, pores are created in the membrane of the cell and through these pores, genes are transferred without any difficulty. To make the pores on the cell surface, few unique chemicals are used or in few conditions, the surface is exposed to a weak electric current which creates the pores.Hawthorn junction morse code
Thus, in this way the genes are transferred or inserted. Bio ballistics method: In this method, tiny silver particles are used to insert the genes into the cell and these silver particles are coated with the genetic material.
In some cases, the silver particles are inserted with the help of a shotgun. Microinjection: Plasmids and vectors are not the only to insert genes into the cells; there are many ways of transferring genes where the plasmids and vectors are not utilized and one of such method is microinjection.
In the microinjection method, the abroad gene is injected into a cell which later incorporates with the cell and replicates. If a large area is concerned then a glass needle is helped to inject. Yes, it is true that it has side effects but still, there are many possible ways to create new ways in genetic engineering like creation new human being with many beneficial characteristics.
The genetic engineering is quicker and we can also predict the results of it to few extent. Content of the Seminar and pdf report for Genetic Engineering. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it.
Genetic Engineering pdf Report Free Download. If you liked it then please share it or if you want to ask anything then please hit comment button. So many many thanks for the pdf. Great work buddy.Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description A basic introduction to Genetic Engineering in humans.
PowerPoint Presentation: Genome? Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism. In humans, a copy of the entire genome—more than 3 billion DNA base pairs—is contained in all cells that have a nucleus.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. PowerPoint Presentation: Each base pair is attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide.
Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. Human genetic engineering is about genetically engineering human beings by modifying their genotypes before birth. The Genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual with respect to a particular character under consideration. The cells of our body contain encoded information about the body's growth, structure and functioning in the form of genes.
Human genetic engineering aims at decoding this information and applying it to the welfare of mankind. PowerPoint Presentation: The Process of Genetic Engineering In Humans Step 1: The first step is to choose and isolate the gene that will be inserted into the genetically modified organism.
Presently, most genes transferred into plants provide protection against insects or tolerance to herbicides. PowerPoint Presentation: out according to length. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR can also be used to amplify up a gene segment, which can then be isolated through gel electrophoresis. PowerPoint Presentation: Step 2: The gene to be inserted into the genetically modified organism must be combined with other genetic elements in order for it to work properly.
The gene can also be modified at this stage for better expression or effectiveness. The promoter region initiates transcription of the gene and can be used to control the location and level of gene expression, while the terminator region ends transcription. PowerPoint Presentation: The most common form of genetic engineering involves inserting new genetic material randomly within the host genome. There are cases like cardiomyopathy or susceptibility to viruses, that can be overcome with the help of this technology.
PowerPoint Presentation: Better drugs could be produced that are disease or gene specific and attack the specific genetic mutation in an individual, to help over come a disease or disorder. People with a love of life, can place their bets on it to help them live longer. It is possible to increase the average life span of an individual to years. And not just a longer life, but a healthy, long life, free from diseases and disorders.
Although this may take a bit longer to achieve, but is does not seem impossible any longer.Genetics is a field of biology that studies how traits are passed from parents to their offspring. The passing of traits from parents to offspring is known as heredity, therefore, genetics is the study of heredity.
This introduction to genetics takes you through the basic components of genetics such as DNA, genes, chromosomes and genetic inheritance. Genetics is built around molecules called DNA. DNA molecules hold all the genetic information for an organism.Tacx flow
It provides cells with the information they need to perform tasks that allow an organism to grow, survive and reproduce. A gene is one particular section of a DNA molecule that tells a cell to perform one specific task.
Heredity is what makes children look like their parents. During reproduction, DNA is replicated and passed from a parent to their offspring.
This inheritance of genetic material by offspring influences the appearance and behavior of the offspring. The environment that an organism lives in can also influence how genes are expressed.
DNA is the cornerstone of genetics and is the perfect place to start for an introduction to genetics. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and it is the molecule that holds the genetic information for a cell and an organism. A DNA molecule contains a code that can be used by a cell to express certain genes. Specific sections of a DNA molecule provides the information to build specific proteins which can then be used by a cell to express the desired gene.Chiknu xa
A DNA molecule is a nucleic acid, one of the four molecules of life. It comes in the form of a long, linear molecule referred to as a strand. In eukaryotic cellsDNA is found in the nucleus as a tightly coiled double helix. DNA molecules are replicated during cell division. When a cell divides, the two new cells contain all the same DNA that the original cell had. In sexual reproduction with two parents, half of the DNA of the offspring is provided by each of the parents.
A gene is a specific segment of a DNA molecule that holds the information for one specific protein. DNA molecules have a unique code for each gene which codes for their specific protein. Genes are the basic unit of heredity.
The genes of an individual are determined by their parent or parents. A bacteria that is born by one parent cell splitting into two cells and has the exact same genes as their one parent cell. A human, on the other hand, has two copies of each gene — one set from their mother and a second set from their father.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.
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Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Through selective breeding Through the Tags: engineering genetic. Latest Highest Rated. Through selective breeding Through the exploitation of mutations Since breeders have been able to take advantage of naturally occurring mutations, they have dreamed of being able to artificially create mutations.
The nucleotides only pair with certain other nucleotides. The pairing of nucleotides is the phenomena that makes genetic engineering possible. The insulin is then separated, purified, and the remains of the bacteria are destroyed This procedure provides a ready relatively inexpensive supply of insulin for those people who need it 11 Bacteria have become the manufacturing centers for many substances that have made the lives of humans better and more productive Vaccines Hormones Bovine somatotropin BST A relatively recent agricultural innovation using genetic engineering 12 A hormone composed of protein that that is produced by the animals pituitary gland Helps control the production of milk by assisting the regulation of nutrients into the production of milk or fat Supplementary BST causes the cow to produce less fat and more milk By splicing genetic material into E.
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